Arunachal Pradesh, “Land of the Rising Sun" is bordered by the kingdom of Bhutan to the west, the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Myanmar (Burma) and Nagaland to the south and southeast, and Assam to the south and southwest.
The climate of Arunachal Pradesh varies with topography and elevation. The foothill zone is subtropical and has a hot and humid climate; in the lower valleys, summer temperatures in June, July, and August typically rise into the mid-90s F (mid-30s C), while winter high temperatures in December, January, and February usually reach the mid-50s F (about 13 °C). Average temperatures decrease as elevations increase in the mountains.
Arunachal Pradesh is home to dozens of distinct ethnic groups, most of which are in some ways related to the peoples of Tibet and the hill region of western Myanmar. More than two-thirds of the state’s people are designated officially as Scheduled Tribes, a term that generally applies to indigenous peoples who fall outside of the prevailing Indian social structure. In western Arunachal Pradesh the Nissi (Nishi or Dafla), Sherdukpen, Aka, Monpa, Apa Tani, and Hill Miri are among the main tribes. The Adi, who constitute the largest tribal group in the state, live in the central region. The Mishmi inhabit the northeastern hills, and the Wancho, Nocte, and Tangsa are concentrated in the southeastern district of Tirap. Throughout the state, the tribal peoples generally share similar rural lifestyles and occupations; many are subsistence farmers who supplement their diet by hunting, fishing, and gathering forest products. Dispersed villages and isolated farmsteads are typical features of the landscape. Aside from the Scheduled Tribes, much of the remainder of the population of Arunachal Pradesh consists of immigrants from Bangladesh, as well as from Assam, Nagaland, and other states of India.